Mendelian-Mutationism: the Forgotten Evolutionary Synthesis

What is Mendelian-mutationism?  And why do we argue in a recent paper in that it represents a forgotten evolutionary synthesis (Stoltzfus and Cable, 2014, Mendelian-Mutationism: The Forgotten Evolutionary Synthesis. J Hist Biol. doi:10.1007/s10739-014-9383-2)?


Effect of mutation bias in the 1-step adaptation model of Yampolsky & Stoltzfus, 2001. The greater the bias in mutation, the greater the tendency to evolve in the mutationally favored direction.

For me, the story started a long time ago with our theoretical demonstration (graph at right) that bias in the introduction of variation (by mutation-and-altered-development) is a fundamental cause of non-randomness in evolution (Yampolsky & Stoltzfus, 2001).

The novelty of this claim bothered me deeply.  Why?  Here was a basic principle— a causal link between non-randomness in biological inputs (mutational and developmental biases) and non-randomness in evolutionary outputs— as fundamental as the concept of selection or drift.  Yet, this principle was not mentioned in any textbook of evolution or population genetics (indeed, there is even a classical population-genetic argument against a determinative role for mutational biases).  I could not even find this principle in the research literature!  When it comes to contemplating the impact of biases in variation, evolutionary biologists habitually assume that such an impact is impossible, except in the special case of (1) rigid constraints (i.e., the impossibility of generating form B means we’ll get A or C instead), or (2) neutral evolution.   We knew that all of this was incorrect.

This prompted 2 questions.  Why wasn’t a general connection between biases in variation and biases in evolution recognized long ago, e.g., by Wright, Haldane or Fisher?   And, why— after it was discovered and published in 2001— didn’t this inspire a revolution?


The top of my evolution bookshelf, with historic works in roughly chronological order: from Darwin and Mivart to the Mendelians (top shelf), then the core of the Modern Synthesis, up to the early molecular era (next shelf) [1]

I’m still puzzling over the second, admittedly naive, question.  To address the first question, I’ve spent an inordinate amount of time studying the development of evolutionary thought (bookshelf at right).

The short answer is this: the notion that mutation has a dispositional role in evolution, influencing its rate and direction, represents a kind of “internal” causation, an internal source of direction in evolution, that Darwin’s followers rejected as illegitimate.  Ever since, it has been a blind spot in evolutionary thinking.

The nature of this rejection is hard to comprehend today, due to a process of amnesia and theory-drift.  Nearly all evolutionary biologists today believe that evolutionary biology has a prevailing theory, and that this theory— called the Modern Synthesis or modern neo-Darwinism— came together in the mid-20th century.   What few realize is how far the common conception of this theory has drifted from its original intentions.  The original Modern Synthesis was held together with Darwinian doctrines that most scientists today do not accept, such as the doctrine of gradualism, the idea that selection is creative, or the rejection of any internal causes of direction.  We can think of these as the “soft parts” of the Modern Synthesis, the muscles and connective tissue that gave it shape and motion.


The soft bits of this whale carcass rotted away, leaving only the bones.

Over time, the Darwinian character of the Modern Synthesis has rotted away, leaving only the more resilient parts.  This is why scientists today think of the Modern Synthesis as a kind of open-ended framework for understanding evolution. They are looking at an open-ended skeleton.

Our study of early geneticists revealed that this skeleton predates the Modern Synthesis.  There was an earlier Mendelian-Mutationist Synthesis that combined mutation, heredity and selection, without Darwinian doctrinal commitments to gradualism, the creativity of selection, and the “randomness” (non-importance) of mutation.  What most scientists today think of as the Modern Synthesis is actually the forgotten Mendelian-Mutationist synthesis. Like scientists today, the early geneticists or “mutationists” welcomed both selection and neutrality, allowed both gradual change and saltations, and welcomed the idea that biases in mutation could be the cause of parallelisms or trends.

The new paper by Stoltzfus and Cable describes what the early geneticists believed about how evolution works, and what they contributed to the foundations of evolutionary thought.  It also explains why they rejected Darwin’s theory (another case in which the popular conception of a theory today does not match what its historical meaning).

But that’s only half of the story.  The other big theme is historiography, the telling of history.  The disconnect between what actually happened and what scientists believe is not just a matter of theory-drift.

“History is written by the victors,” Churchill said.  In this case, the victorious architects of the Modern Synthesis promulgated a view of early geneticists as bumbling fools who saw mutation and selection as opposing principles, and who couldn’t think synthetically.  The period of 1900 to 1920, actually a rich period in which early geneticists laid the foundations of modern evolutionary thought, is described perversely as part of an “eclipse of Darwinism”— a period of darkness when the world was deprived of His light— lasting until Darwinism is re-born in the Modern Synthesis.  This story-telling has been so influential that, when contemporary scientists list historically important figures, all key figures of the Mendelian-Mutationist synthesis are removed, Soviet-style (see figure below).[2]


On this timeline of “notable people who have contributed to evolutionary thought” (source), I have super-imposed a salmon-colored box. This box includes the birth year of anyone 25 to 60 years old— the prime of a scientist’s life—  when genetics was discovered in 1900.  No timelines begin in the box. That is, the figure tells us there were no notable contributions by scientists born in this period, which includes the birth of de Vries (1848-1935), Johannsen (1857-1927), Bateson (1861-1926), Cuénot (1866-1951), Davenport (1866-1944), Morgan (1866-1945), and Punnett (1875-1967). Richard Goldschmidt (1878-1958), born just a few years later and listed as a non-Darwinian (top), was a second-generation mutationist whose 1940 book introduced “hopeful monsters” and provoked Ernst Mayr into writing a book of his own.

That is, the distorted view of history that evolutionary biologists hold today is not just a matter of passive amnesia, but of a highly successful public relations campaign, what evo-devoist Stuart Newman recently called “an unremitting 90-year campaign to identify ‘evolutionary theory’ with ‘Darwinism'”.

The recent paper on Mendelian-Mutationism is actually an off-shoot of a series of “Mutationism myth” blogs written for SandWalk in 2010.  To turn the blogs into a scholarly work worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed historical journal was a major project accomplished over the course of 2 years, by teaming up with a history-of-science graduate student named Kele Cable. Kele recently blogged about our paper on his web site.


[1] Some of my favorites: Haldane, 1932 (the tattered volume, top, second from right); the 1911 (3rd) edition of Punnett’s Mendelism, the first textbook of genetics (the slimmer of two burgundy volumes, top center); George Williams (1966) Adaptation and Natural Selection (row 2, 9th from right, with the shiny jacket cover); Lewontin, 1974 (row 2, right end, red with gold lettering next to Crow & Kimura 1970).

[2] Other examples could be given.  The Oxford Encyclopedia of Evolution (click for searchable online index) has an entry for Mendel, who made no direct contributions to evolutionary thinking, but lacks an entry for all of the mutationists except for Morgan.  Importantly, the entry for Morgan says nothing of his evolutionary views, only of his contributions to genetics.  Textbooks (e.g., Ridley, 1993, or Freeman & Herron, 1998) and online teaching materials (try a web search on “development” or “history”  of evolutionary thought) frequently jump from Darwin to the Modern Synthesis, with the explanation that Darwin’s theory was right but needed a mechanism, and this was supplied when the architects of the Modern Synthesis combined genetics and selection.  Early geneticists, if they are mentioned at all, are depicted only for their alleged failure to understand selection, accept small changes, or achieve synthesis.

The surprising case of origin-fixation models

In a recent QRB paper with David McCandlish, we review the form, origins, uses, and implications of models (e.g., the familiar K = 4Nus) that represent evolutionary change as a 2-step process of (1) the introduction of a new allele by mutation, followed by (2) its fixation or loss.

What could be surprising about these “origin-fixation” models, which are invoked in theoretical models of adaptation (e.g., the mutational landscape model) and in widely used methods applied to phylogenetic inference, comparative genomics, detecting selection, modeling codon usage, and so on?

Quite a lot, it turns out. (more…)

Going global with phylogeny: the tree-for-all hackathon

Earlier this year, the Open Tree of Life project made the first public release of its synthetic tree of 2.5 million species (from ~4000 source trees), and announced a web services API (Application Programming Interface) providing programmatic access to a continually updated set of resources:

  • synthetic tree covering millions of species
  • a database of thousands of source trees
  • reference taxonomy used to align names from different sources

Tree-for-All participants convene to hear a report from a hackathon team

The API release was timed to coincide with our open call for participation in a “Tree-for-all” hackathon, which took place September 15 to 19 (2014) at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.  The hackathon— organized and funded by OT, the Arbor workflows project and NESCent’s HIP (Hackathons, Interoperability, Phylogenies) working group (Stoltzfus and Pontelli, PIs)— aimed to build capacity to leverage OT’s resources, making expert phylogenetic knowledge more accessible to scientists, educators, and the public.

To find out more about the hackathon, go to Open Tree’s blog (click on the “tree-for-all” tag), where I am guest-blogging about it.  Using web services to make phylogenetic knowledge more accessible is the theme of the Phylotastic project described by Stoltzfus, et al. 2013.

The Curious Disconnect: Introduction

This is a far-too-long introduction to a blog series that I started in 2010.  Now I’m ready to start it up again.  The themes will still be the same— but hopefully I have learned a bit about stating things more succinctly.

Striking a chord

The title of this blog- The Curious Disconnect- comes from a 2002 article by eminent evolutionary geneticist Allen Orr, who had broken new ground by developing predictive models of adaptation, and was reflecting on why such models weren’t developed long ago, referring to “a curious disconnect between the verbal theory that sits at the heart of neo-Darwinism and the mathematical content of most evolutionary genetics”.

That struck a chord with me. Since the 1990s, I had struggled with a “disconnect” that emerged while I was digesting a think-piece by paleontologists Elisabeth Vrba and Niles Eldredge. Among other things, Vrba & Eldredge made the startling suggestion that a key theme of “evo-devo” was that “bias in the introduction of phenotypic variation may be more important to directional phenotypic evolution than sorting by selection”. By 1999 when Constructive Neutral Evolution appeared, my thinking had shifted noticeably toward emphasizing 1) the mechanistic distinction between the process of introducing variants and the (separate, subsequent) process of reproductive sorting (selection and drift), and 2) a research program of accounting for non-randomness (in evolution) by invoking both bias in the introduction process, and bias in the sorting proces.

This way of thinking suggested that mutational-developmental bias in the introduction of variation was a general cause of evolutionary bias or direction. That contradicted two things I knew about evolutionary thinking. (more…)

When “Darwinian adaptation” is neither

Getting stuff right

Early in the evolution of the Sequence Ontology, it was noted (by gadflies like myself) that SO asserts the relationship of mRNA to gene to be the “part of” relationship.  This is obviously wrong.  An RNA molecule is not part of a DNA molecule.   Saying that mRNA is part of a gene is like saying that a CD with some audio chapters from a book is part of that book.

Ontologies are supposed to support formal reasoning: errors in representation will lead inevitably to erroneous results.  For instance, if we are reasoning about the chemical composition of a cell using mRNA part_of gene as a constraint, we would conclude falsely that the mass of DNA must always be at least as much as the mass of mRNA, because the mass of a thing is always at least as great as the mass of some specified parts.


The Great Non-Debate on Evolutionary Theory (Nature, Oct 2014)

Some of you may have noticed a recent exchange in Nature on the question of whether evolutionary biology needs a re-think. The online article does not make clear the alignments of the listed authors, but those arguing in favor of a re-think are:

  • Kevin Laland, Tobias Uller, Marc Feldman, Kim Sterelny, Gerd B. Müller, Armin Moczek, Eva Jablonka, and John Odling-Smee

and those arguing against are:

  • Gregory A. Wray, Hopi E. Hoekstra, Douglas J. Futuyma, Richard E. Lenski, Trudy F. C. Mackay, Dolph Schluter and Joan E. Strassmann

I was a bit surprised that they didn’t get people who actually disagree about science, like Mike Lynch and Sean Carroll.  Instead, the debate takes place between participants who disagree on the meta-scientific question of whether the field needs a re-think.  What is each side saying?

Evolution: A View from the 21st Century (book review)

Last year I read James Shapiro’s Evolution: A View from the 21st Century (2013, FT Press) along with 2 other recent books, Nei’s Mutation-Driven Evolution and Koonin’s The Logic of Chance.  All 3 fall into the category of recent books by seasoned researchers whose primary focus is molecular, and who argue that we ought to rethink evolution based on findings of molecular biology or molecular evolution.   The 5-word summaries of these books are:

  • Engineering, not accident, provides innovation (Shapiro)
  • Mutation, not selection, drives evolution (Nei)
  • After Darwinism, things get complicated (Koonin)

In the case of Koonin, you have to read the whole book to understand what he means. If you are not familiar with the past 10 to 20 years of findings from comparative genomics, then it will be educational, and regardless of your familiarity with genomics, it will be entertaining and thought-provoking.  In the case of Nei, you can read the whole book and still not understand his thesis because he never defines terms and never actually compares mutation and selection to determine which one drives evolution (the wikipedia “mutationism” page has links to a handful of reviews of Nei’s book, including my review in Ev & Dev).

In Shapiro’s case, the book explains precisely what is meant by the idea that innovation is the result of engineering, not accident, though he leaves open the question of what are the general implications of this for evolutionary theory. (more…)

Theory vs. Theory

What does it mean to invoke “evolutionary theory”? Is “neo-Darwinism” (or “Darwinism”) a theory, a school of thought, or something else? What gives a theory structure and meaning (e.g., axioms, themes, formulae)? What is the relationship between mathematical formalisms and other statements of “theory” (e.g., what does it mean for a lecturer to show a key equation of quantitative evolutionary genetics and assert “this is neo-Darwinism” 1)? Who decides how a theory is defined, or redefined (e.g., is Ohta’s “nearly neutral” theory an alternative to, or a variant of, Kimura’s Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution)?

In this post, we’ll begin the process of developing a shared framework for productively discussing “theory” and “theories”. We will begin by addressing an ambiguity in the use of the word “theory”, partly because this particular ambiguity is important, and partly as an exercise in addressing semantics. 2

The Mutationism Myth (1): The Monk’s Lost Code and the Great Confusion

This is the first in a series of blogs first published in 2010 on Sandwalk.

The mutationism myth tells the story of how, just over a century ago, the scientific community responded to the discovery of Mendelian genetics by discarding Darwinism, and how Darwinism subsequently was restored.  In this, the first of six parts, we are not going to confront any tough scientific or conceptual issues. Instead, we are just going to review an odd story about our intellectual history.

The Mutationism Story

While “myth” has the connotation of falsehood, the story that a myth tells isn’t necessarily a false one. The mutationism myth, at least, is anchored in historical events.1

The mutationism myth tells the story of how, just over a century ago, the scientific community responded to the discovery of Mendelian genetics by discarding Darwinism, and how Darwinism subsequently was restored. The villains of the story are the influential early geneticists or “Mendelians” who saw genetics as a refutation of Darwinism; the heroes are first, the founders of population genetics, theoreticians who sorted everything out in favor of Darwinism by about 1930, and second, the architects of the Modern Synthesis, activists who popularized and institutionalized what we’re calling “Darwinism 2.0”.

This story has been re-told in secondary sources for nearly 50 years, though I sense that the frequency is decreasing as this episode passes into ancient history. To find examples, try looking up “mutationism” (sometimes “Mendelism” or even “saltationism”) in the index of a book about evolution.

I encourage you to consult whatever sources you have and to share the stories that you find. Note that you won’t always be successful. A quick survey of several dozen contemporary books on my shelf reveals that most don’t address this episode specifically (a notable absence, in some cases 2); some tell the mutationism myth with varying degrees of panache; and a few provide a historical account rather than a myth. The few historical accounts that I found were in Gould’s 2002 The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, Strickberger’s 1990 textbook Evolution, and the Wikipedia entry on “Mutationism”.

Sample stories

Lets look at a few examples of the mutationism story. Readers who want to check out a freely available online source from the scholarly literature may refer to Ayala and Fitch, 1997 ( One example that really caught my eye is not from scientific literature, but from the 2005 obituary for Ernst Mayr in The Economist:

It was not that biologists had given up on evolution by the 1940s-quite the contrary. But they had got very confused about its mechanism. . . . The geneticists of the early 20th century did not help. They rediscovered the laws of inheritance first developed 40 years earlier by Gregor Mendel, an unsung Moravian monk. They also discovered the idea of genetic mutation. But instead of linking these things to natural selection, they came up with the idea of “saltation”-in other words, sudden mutational shifts from one well-adapted species to another. Nor, the geneticists complained, had there been enough time for natural selection to do its work, given what they had discovered about the rate at which mutations occur, and the fact that most mutations are deleterious. It was all a bit of a mess. . .Mr Mayr’s advantage over the laboratory-bound biologists who had hijacked and diluted Darwin’s legacy was that, like Darwin, he was a naturalist-and a good one. (anonymous, 2005)

Of course, this is a magazine article, written by anonymous staff writers– typically one doesn’t see such florid language in the scholarly literature. But did the staff writers of the Economist (representing elite opinion) really originate this story, based on their own personal recollections of the 1930’s? Of course not. Mayr himself popularized the image of geneticists as laboratory-bound geeks lacking the organic insight of “naturalists”. This disdain for the geneticists who “hijacked” Darwin’s legacy is readily apparent when evolutionary writers depict geneticists as fools holding “beliefs” that have “obvious inadequacies”, unable to understand or “grasp” their own scientific findings:

“It is hard for us to comprehend but, in the early years of this century when the phenomenon of mutation was first named, it was regarded not as a necessary part of Darwinian theory but as an alternative theory of evolution! There was a school of geneticists called the mutationists, which included such famous names as Hugo de Vries and William Bateson among the early rediscoverers of Mendel’s principles of heredity, Wilhelm Johannsen the inventor of the word gene, and Thomas Hunt Morgan the father of the chromosome theory of heredity. . . Mendelian genetics was thought of, not as the central plank of Darwinism that it is today, but as antithetical to Darwinism. . . It is extremely hard for the modern mind to respond to this idea with anything but mirth” (Dawkins, 1987, p. 305)

“According to mutationism, random changes in the hereditary material are sufficient for adaptation without much, or any, selection at all. Mutations just somehow happen to be adaptive, the right changes simply manage to occur. The inadequacies of this view are obvious” (Cronin, 1991, p. 47).

“Darwin knew nothing of this [i.e., genetics] but as it turned out, his ignorance was sublimely irrelevant to the problem he was really interested in tackling: evolution. This point was not fully grasped by biologists. Many early geneticists at the dawn of the 20th century, thought their discoveries of the fundamental principles of genetics somehow cast doubt [on], or rendered obsolete, the concept of natural selection. It took several decades of experimentation and theoretical (including mathematical) analysis to show not only that there was no conflict inherent between the emerging results of genetics and the older Darwinian notion of natural selection, but that the two operate in different domains.” (Eldredge, 2001, p. 67)

“Mendelian particulate inheritance (today, we call the “particles” genes) was originally identified with De Vries’s “mutation theory”, according to which new variations or species originated in large jumps, or macromutations, and evolution was exclusively explained by mutation pressure. Darwinian naturalists, believing that Mendelism was synonymous with mutation theory, held on to theories of soft inheritance, while they considered selection a weak force at best. They did not know of the new findings in genetics that would have supported Darwinism. (SegerstrŒle, 2002)

Notice how, in every version of the story above, the position taken by early geneticists just doesn’t make sense. This isn’t a story of theory versus theory, its a story of confusion ultimately yielding to reason.

If de Vries and the other geneticists are playing the role of the pied piper in this story, the “naturalists” are like the children lured away from their Darwinian home. Ultimately the innocents are returned, and order restored, by mathematicians:

“Between 1918 and 1932 Fisher, Haldane, and Wright showed that Mendelian genetics is consistent with natural selection. Only then, more than 60 years after the publication of The Origin of Species, was the genetic objection to natural selection finally removed. Modern molecular and developmental genetics have confirmed in exquisite chemical detail the key aspects of genetics necessary for Darwin’s ideas to work: that the genetic material is DNA, that DNA has a sequence, . . . mutates . . . contains information . . ” (p. 16 of Stearns and Hoekstra, 2005)

One might have thought that the compatibility of genetics and selection was obvious from the start, or that it had been demonstrated by the selection experiments of Johannsen, but apparently biologists of the time had a high demand for mathematical rigor.

Anatomy of a Myth

In a subsequent post, we will look at original sources to see what the “mutationists” actually believed, and why. And eventually we will integrate this into the bigger picture of how evolutionary theory developed. But for now, lets just summarize the pattern that is apparent in the literature.

First, the mutationism story is clearly a story or myth, and not an ordinary scientific truth claim. We can see this because the story-tellers are not using ordinary scientific conventions to convince us that the story is true. If you or I were making an ordinary scientific argument (for instance) for an effect of “translational selection” on codon usage, we would mention a correlation between codon frequencies and the abundance of corresponding tRNAs, citing the classic work of Ikemura (1981), and we might even repeat a figure showing this correlation, to impress this point upon the minds of readers (e.g., just as in Ch. 7 of Freeman & Herron, 1998).

When I see instances of the mutationism story, typically I don’t find quotations illustrating what the mutationists believed, nor facts & figures to refute their views, but only vague attributions and generalized claims. Apropos, the following quotation from Ernst Mayr never fails to make me laugh:

The genetic work of the last four decades has refuted mutationism (saltationism) so thoroughly that it is not necessary to repeat once more all the genetic evidence against it. (Mayr, 1960)

And the puissant Dr. Mayr proceeds on, not boring the reader with any tiresome “genetic evidence”, nor citing sources that might allow the reader to evaluate the truth of his statement. Its a story, after all.

By contrast, the 3 sources that I mentioned above as providing scientific history, rather than myth, all make reference to specific experimental and theoretical results, and reveal knowledge of specific historically important scientific works. For instance, Strickberger’s reference list includes Johannsen, 1903, as well as the 1902 paper by Yule that reconciled Mendelian genetics with quantitative variation (in neo-Darwinian mythology, credit for Yule’s work is given to little Ronny Fisher, who was 11 at the time).

Second, every story has a plot or “action”, and the main action of the mutationism story is a turn of fate in which power is temporarily in the hands of the wrong people or ideas. In archetypal terms, its a story of usurpation and restoration: the throne is usurped, and the kingdom falls into darkness and confusion until the throne is restored to the king’s rightful heirs. The mutationism episode didn’t have to be told that way: it might have been presented as a period of reform (in which old ideas were abandoned) or discovery (when new territory was mapped out). Instead, its presented as a mistake, an interlude of confusion, a collective delusion.

Indeed, another way to look at the mythic action is that the Mendelians are wizards or false prophets who place the kingdom under a spell, leading folks astray and causing them to believe things that they just shouldn’t have believed.

What delusional spell did the Mendelians cast? In the story by Eldredge, or by Stearns & Hoekstra above, the spell is that Mendelian genetics is inconsistent with “the concept of natural selection” (Eldredge). In the story told by SegerstrŒle, Cronin, Mayr and The Economist, the delusional spell is a bit different: the principle of selection is irrelevant because mutational jumps alone explain evolution.

Third, the key to restoring Darwin’s kingdom was to add the missing piece of genetics. Ultimately, after the period of darkness ended, the discovery of genetics “provided the missing link in Darwin’s theory” (SegerstrŒle, 2002), or “The missing link in Darwin’s argument was provided by Mendelian genetics” (Ayala & Fitch, 1997). Darwinism was restored, not by taking away the power of genetics, but by redirecting it to support Darwinism. Clearly, genetics is the key to ruling the kingdom, like the One Ring that Rules them All in Tolkien’s world. The ones who have the ring have the power.

The story is made more fascinating by the fact that the key to power is literally a code of rules developed by a monk that remained lost for nearly half a century. The usurpers who discover The Monk’s Code misinterpret it, and use it to overthrow the true king, establishing a reign of error. But when The Founders decipher the true meaning of the Monk’s Code, The Architects campaign throughout the kingdom, spreading the news: the Monk’s Code proves that Darwin is the true king. Darwin’s rule is re-established, all opposition ceases, and the kingdom is unified.


If you would like to contribute a mutationism story, I would be happy to start a collection if you make it easy for me by providing a complete and well formed text item. Be sure to provide a quoted passage with a source, citing exact page numbers. If we get enough stories, lets try to recruit a sociologist or historian to study this further.


To summarize, the mutationism story is a myth that is retold in secondary sources. The basic story is simple: the discoverers of genetics misinterpreted their discovery, thinking it incompatible with Darwinism; Darwinism went into disfavor; population geneticists came along and showed that genetics was the missing key to Darwinism; Darwinism was restored and once again reigned supreme.

Next time on the The Curious Disconnect, we’ll start pulling on some of the loose threads of this story.

For now, note how the writers quoted above are genuinely baffled by our scientific history. It just doesn’t make sense to them. A century ago, most of an entire generation of scientists thought of genetics as a contradiction of Darwinism. This is a historical fact, and presumably it has an explanation that rational folks can understand by examining what scientists of the time wrote. But this historical fact mystifies Dawkins, Eldredge, Cronin, and others.


Anonymous. 2005. Ernst Mayr, evolutionary biologist, died on February 3rd, aged 100. The Economist, February.

Ayala, F. J., and W. M. Fitch. 1997. Genetics and the origin of species: an introduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:7691-7697.

Cronin, H. 1991. The Ant and the Peacock. Cambridge University Presss, Cambridge.Dawkins, R. 1987. The Blind Watchmaker. W.W. Norton and Company, New York.

Eldredge, N. 2001. The Triumph of Evolution and the Failure of Creationism. W H Freeman & Co.

Freeman, S., and J. C. Herron. 1998. Evolutionary Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Gould, S. J. 2002. The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Ikemura, T. 1981. Correlation between the abundance of Escherichia coli transfer RNAs and the occurrence of the respective codons in its protein genes: a proposal for a synonymous codon choice that is optimal for the E. coli translational system. J Mol Biol 151:389-409.

Mayr, E. 1960. The Emergence of Evolutionary Novelties. Pp. 349-380 in S. Tax, and C. Callender, eds. Evolution After Darwin: The University of Chicago Centennial. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

SegerstrŒle, U. 2002. Neo-Darwinism. Pp. 807-810 inM. Pagel, ed. Encyclopedia of Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.

Stearns, S. C., and R. F. Hoekstra. 2005. Evolution: an introduction. Oxford University Press, New York.

Strickberger, M.W. 1990. Evolution (1st edition).


1 The defining characteristic of a myth is not that it isn’t literally true, but that it isn’t told for reason of being literally true, but for reason of being meaningful or poignant: a myth is a story with a cultural value, not necessarily a literal-truth value. The connection between myths and untruths, then, has to do with discoverability: when we find a pattern P = { X people are repeating story Y }, where X is a large number, this pattern by itself does not prove that Y is a myth because X people might have all discovered or verified Y independently; but if Y has diverse elements that are untrue (or unverifiable), then we can conclude that its repetition does not signify independent verification, suggesting that its a myth.

2The Oxford Encyclopedia of Evolution does not have an article on mutationism; the article on Morgan says nothing of his views on evolution; there is no article on Bateson; mutationism is only addressed peripherally in Hull’s article on the history of evolutionary theory; it is mainly addressed in SegerstrŒle’s article on neo-Darwinism.